Quentin Jerome Tarantino (pronounced /ˌtærənˈtiːnoʊ/; born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, cinematographer and actor. In the early 1990s he was an independent filmmaker whose black comedy films used nonlinear storylines and the aestheticization of violence. His most notorious films include Reservoir Dogs (1992), Pulp Fiction (1994), Four Rooms (1995), Jackie Brown (1997), Kill Bill (2003–2004), Death Proof (2007) and Inglourious Basterds (2009). His films have earned him a variety of Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and Palme d'Or awards and he has been nominated for Emmy and Grammy awards. In 2007, Total Film named him the 12th-greatest director of all time.